For Indians fighting with Nazi Germany, see Indian Legion. The British Indian Army during World War II began the war, in 1939, numbering just under 200,000 men. By the end of the war, it had become the largest volunteer army in history, rising to over 2.5 million men in August 1945 The British Indian Army was the main military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947. It was responsible for the defence of both the British Indian Empire and the princely states, which could also have their own armies. The Indian Army was an important part of the British Empire's forces, both in India and abroad, particularly during the First World War and the Second. As part of the British Indian Army, many Indian soldiers who were martyred during World War II were given the Victoria Cross (VC), the highest military award for on-ground combat. These heroes have gone unsung and unrecognised for far too long, both in India and in Britain. A bout 2.5 million Indians served the British Army during World War II. Indians were deployed to various parts of the world to fight the Axis powers, including in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. During the six. During The Second World War 2.5 million Soldiers came from the Indian Subcontinent which Includes Modern Day India & Pakistan. They Were Part Of The British They Were Part Of The British.
Nine soldiers from the British Indian Army buried in the shadow of the Cairngorms are remembered in a multi-faith ceremony - the Muslim soldiers were part of.. .5 million Soldiers came from the Indian Subcontinent which Includes Modern Day India & Pakistan. They Were.. British Indian Army Recruits line up Propaganda and Politics during WWII through the lens of International Tracing Service (ITS) Collections, in MIDA Archival Reflexicon (2019), pp. 1-12. Judd, Dennis. The Lion and the Tiger: The Rise and Fall of the British Raj, 1600-1947 (2004) Karnad, Raghu. Farthest Field - An Indian Story of the Second World War (Harper Collins India, 2015) ISBN. After issues about recruitment, reinforcement and management of the British Indian Army during the Great War (ie, the First World War), the British Indian Army was reorganised in the early 1920's. Regiments were amalgamated and some disbanded
The Indian Army was an informal collective term for the armies of the three presidencies; the Bengal Army, Madras Army and Bombay Army . 1895-1902. The Indian Army had a formal existence and was the army of the government of India, including British and Indian ( sepoy) units. 1903-1947 British Army [ˌbrɪtɪʃ ɑːmɪ] (deutsch britisches Heer) ist die Bezeichnung der Landstreitkräfte des Vereinigten Königreiches.. Im Unterschied zu den beiden anderen Teilstreitkräften des Vereinigten Königreichs, der Royal Air Force und der Royal Navy, trägt die British Army nicht den Zusatz Royal im Namen, was ihrer Tradition als Parlamentsarmee entspricht - stattdessen tragen eine. The service records of British officers and warrant officers who served in the Indian Army during the Second World War are kept at the British Library in London. They are held in the L/MIL/14/239 Indian Army Records of Service series and can be searched using the British Library's Explore Archives and Manuscripts search engine The Indian Army began the war, in 1939, numbering just under 200,000 men. By the end of the war it had become the largest volunteer armyin history, rising to over 2.5 million men in August 1945. Serving in divisionsof infantry, armour and a fledgling airborne force, they fought on three continents in Africa, Europe and Asia The Indian Army was the largest volunteer force during the Second World War. Without resorting to conscription, the British were able to recruit 2.5 million Indians in the colonial Indian Army. The Indian Army fought the three major Axis powers (Japan, Italy, and Germany) from Hong Kong in the east to Italy in the west. It displayed tactical virtuosity and organizational flexibility while fighting in varying terrains, from the swamps and jungles of Malaya and Burma to the rocky.
Men of the Loodiaah (Ludhiana) Sikh Regiment during Second Opium War in China, c. 1860 Sikhs served in the British Indian Army throughout the British Raj. Sikh units fought at the Battle of Saragarhi; in the First World War, as the Black Lions, as well as during the Second World War in Malaya, Burma and Italy The British Army and Empire Armies at the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939 with organization, divisions, equipment and tanks. The first troops of the BEF arrive in France in 1939. British and Empire Armie The Fourteenth Army, a multinational force of British, Indian and African units turned the tide in Asia by recapturing Burma for the Allies. Thirty Indians won Victoria Crosses in the 1940s. commissioned, Unattached List (for the Indian Army) 10.03.1936: commissioned, Indian Army: 24.07.1939-08.11.1939: ADC to HE The Governor Bihan: 09.11.1939-25.08.1940: Military Secretary: 27.08.1940-03.11.1940: Staff Station Officer Kohat: 04.11.1940-15.02.1941: Staff Captain, Kohat Brigade: 01.04.1941-10.07.1942: Adjutant, 44th Cavalry (India
. Under the command of Lieutenant-General Bill Slim, the Army's task was to retake Burma from the Japanese. Slim's generalship combined effective defensive tactics with imaginative and daring offensives. He was immensely popular with the Indian, Gurkha and British troops under his command On December 26th 1939, 1723 men from India disembarked at Marseilles together with over 2000 mules. These were Force K6: Punjabi Muslims of the Royal Indian Army Service Corps (RIASC), sent to France to help the British Expeditionary Force deliver supplies to the front lines It usually alternated between an officer of the British Army and one of the British Indian Army. At the beginning of the Second World War, the headquarters was redesignated as the General Headquarters (G.H.Q.), India Command. The initial focus was to raise divisions for deployment overseas, in particular in the Middle East. The entry of Japan into the war on 8 December 1941, and the subsequent. The Indian Army List was an official publication published between 1889 and 1947 which recorded information regarding the services of British and Indian officers and British warrant officers of the Indian Army. This article looks at the Indian Army List from 1930 onwards and how it can help you research officers who served in the Second World War
The British and Indian forces were supported by planes commanded by the United States Army Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell. Once the Allies became certain that the Japanese planned to attack, General Slim. Captain Robin Rowland was 22 when his regiment was deployed to the north-eastern Indian town of Kohima. It was May 1944, and a small group of British-Indian soldiers was under assault by an entire.. During The Second World War 2.5 million Soldiers came from the Indian Subcontinent which Includes Modern Day India & Pakistan. They Were Part Of The British.
Start of the campaign British and Indian troops in action, 80 miles south of Mandalay, in March 1945 © There were two reasons for the Japanese invasion of Burma. Firstly the Japanese knew it would.. British & Indian Camouflage Paint Colours 1941-45 British and Indian vehicles in the Far East were painted a single uniform camouflage colour. There were no official disruptive camouflage schemes and to date I have not come across any confirmed examples of locally-adopted disruptive schemes. However, photographs of the 7th Armoured Brigade's Stuarts in 1942 do tend to suggest *The Forgotten Army*This is a short documentary originally made as part of a Documentary Making Module in the Coventry University History Department. I visit..
British Indian Army ww2. Image/Gif. 16 comments. share. save. hide. report. 89% Upvoted. This thread is archived. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast. Sort by. best. level 1. 26 points · 2 years ago. Bloody brave troops. Really want them and also the Ghurkas as a customisable choice. level 1 . 16 points · 2 years ago. I'm wondering where the largest volunteer army ever. London refused, and when Congress announced a Quit India campaign in August 1942, its leaders were imprisoned by the British for the duration. Meanwhile, under the leadership of Indian leader Subhas Chandra Bose and several other Indian revolutionaries who were seeking independence from the British, Japan set up an army of Indian POWs known as the Indian National Army When you research a soldier who served in either the British or Indian Army during the Second World War you'll be confronted by a wide range of military jargon. This is often in the form of abbreviations and acronyms and can make reading military documents very difficult. To further complicate matters, you will often find multiple abbreviations and acronyms together. This is one of a series of guides I've written to help you research soldiers who served in the British Army during the war
From Empire to Independence: The British Raj in India 1858-1947. By Dr Chandrika Kaul Last updated 2011-03-0 British Eighth Army, commanded by General Sir Richard L. McCreery, included the 2nd Polish Corps and the British 5th, 10th, and 13th Corps, and it included eight divisions from four different nations, as well as four Italian battle groups and a Jewish brigade. Return to TOP of Page Explanation of British Regiment
. Canadian. New Zealand. South African. US Units. WW2f.Com. Axis Units. Latest: Life of Ernst Barkmann German Panzer Ace ( only 3 minute action scene in the begining) Hisstory Teller, Mar 23, 2021 at 6:47 PM. RSS. Unit Documents For links to, or transcriptions of Histories, War diaries & Accounts not covered under Unit History section. Please include in the title unit name. British Armed Forces Special Vouchers : BALTAPd: Baltic Approaches : BANU: British Army News unit : BAPO: British Army Post Office (RE) B.A.O.R. British Army of the Rhine (post WW2) B.A.R. British Army of the Rhine (post WW1) BC: Battery Commander : BC: Battle Casuality : BCD: Biological and Chemical Defence : BCOF: British Commonwealth.
After the 1857 Indian Mutiny Indian artillery units were abolished and their place taken by British Royal Artillery. Only Indian Mountain Regiments were retained, armed with lightscrew guns.. Until 1859, there were two armies in India: the British Army and the Honourable Company (East India Company) Army. There were also several garrisons of French, Danish, and Dutch soldiers. The British Army regiments were raised in England and spent several years in India, as well as in other places. For the most part, British Army records are now stored in the. . Two military awards are featured in British Army, Indian Volunteer Force medal awards 1915-1939, the Volunteer Forces Long Service Medal & Good Conduct Medal and the Efficiency Medal. The records show over 15,000 individuals from the Indian Defence Force (IDF) or the Auxiliary Force India (AFI) who were awarded the medals between 1915 and 1939. The IDF and AFI were India's equivalent to the UK's.
British Indian Army in WWII . Forum rules. Share. Share with: Link: Copy link. 27 posts Previous; 1; 2; 3; pppet. 928 2. pppet. 928 2. Post Jun 02, 2011 #21 2011-06-02T11:28. By the time the war ended India was in ferment. The INA were considered as heroes by the general populace (for whatever reasons), then there were the mutinies in the RIN in 1946 and some disaffection in the RAF also. For a comprehensive overview, see: Selected Finding Aids Related to NARA's World War II Holdings African Americans Records of Military Agencies Relating to African Americans from the Post-World War I Period to the Korean War , Reference Information Paper Casualty Lists and Missing Missing Air Crew Reports (MACRs) World War II Honor List of Dead and Missing Army and Army Ai All Second World War service records for personnel who served in the British Army are held by the Ministry of Defence (MOD), except for those who served in the Scots Guards which are held at their regimental archive. The MOD not only holds the service records of Second World War soldiers but of: All officers who served past April 1922 The nationalist narrative has long projected the Second World War as a clash between the patriots of the Indian National Army (INA), supported by the Japanese Empire, and the evil British Empire. The soldiers of the Indian Army who fought for the British are immediately dismissed as stooges of the Raj First, in 1914—when Indian nationalism had not fully defined itself and the prestige of the empire was unmatched—employment in the British Indian army was a source of considerable pride and..
Some five million Commonwealth servicemen joined the military services of the British empire during WW2. Almost half of them were from South Asia. Indian soldiers played a key role in major battles.. Sikhs served in the British Indian Army throughout the British Raj. Sikh units fought at the Battle of Saragarhi; in the First World War, as the Black Lions, as well as during the Second World War in Malaya, Burma and Italy. Men of the Loodiaah (Ludhiana) Sikh Regiment during Second Opium War in China, c. 1860 Pre-1914 General. After the fall of the Sikh Empire and death of its king Maharaja. Original WWII British Indian Army Turban Cone $9.95. Original British Post WWII Army Brigadier General Colonel Dress Peaked Visor Cap $225.00. Original British 3rd Kings Own Hussar Trooper Busby - Dated 1911 $695.00. Cap - Peaked - Tri Colour $25.00. Cap - Peaked - Navy/Tan $25.00 . Cap - Peaked - Navy/Grey $25.00. Bucket Hat-Youth-58cm $20.00. Stay In Touch! Email. Submit. Share on Twitter. 1947: Partition of India An early symptom of the weakness of the empire was Britain's withdrawal from India in 1947. During World War Two, the British had mobilised India's resources for their.. Bose hoped to raise a force of about 100,000 men which, when armed and kitted out by the Germans, could be used to invade British India. He decided to raise them by going on recruiting visits to Prisoner-of-War camps in Germany which, at that time, were home to tens of thousands of Indian soldiers captured by Rommel in North Africa
Photo Courtesy: Newsflicks Being a British colony, the Indian Army contributed a large number of soldiers to the European, Mediterranean and the Middle East conflicts of war in World War I. The Indian Army fought against the German Empire in East Africa and also on the Western Front The British Army protects the United Kingdom's interests at home and abroad, providing a safe and secure environment in which all British citizens can live and prosper. What We Do. British Army today and tomorrow. News and Events . Stay in the know. The Army Reserve. realise your potential. Thinking of joining? Careers. Life in the Army If you're thinking about joining I'd say just go. The Indian Army was reorganized by Lord Kitchener while he was commander-in-chief in India (1902-09). Kitchener established an army of 10 divisions (155,000) backed by an internal security force of some 80,000 troops. About a quarter of the infantry and cavalry troops and almost all artillery personnel in the army were British
About 1.5 million Indian soldiers and laborers were serving in the British Indian Army by the time of the Armistice. A total of 60,000 Indian soldiers were killed or reported missing. Although most of India rallied to the British flag, Bengal and Punjab were less easy to control WW2 Kings Regiment British Army Officers Khaki Side Cap & Bronze badge. Code: 11370. £85.00 Approx $117.57, €98.61, £85 . 1922 PATTERN BRITISH KHAKI SERVICE DRESS CAP KINGS ROYAL RIFLE CORPS. Code: 10928. £155.00 Approx $214.38, €179.81, £155 . WW1-WW2 INTERWAR LIVERPOOL SCOTTISH KHAKI OTHER RANKS TAM O SHANTER . Code: 11345. £195.00 Approx $269.71, €226.22, £195 . 1922 PATTERN. This section includes WW2 British Insignia, UK Badges, WW2 Shoulder titles, British wwII wings . Currency All our WW2 insignia are hand embroidered using quality materials, and based on WW2 designs. Sections include British Army Infantry shoulder titles, Guards shoulder flashes, Armour badges and support services. There are also sections for Airborne/Paratrooper, Commando/Special Forces. The battle for Kohima and Imphal was a decisive turning point in WWII. In India's remote northeast states of Manipur and Nagaland, travelers can visit museums and memorials dedicated to the battle Indian soldiers serving with the British army make camp in 1916. Photograph: Getty. Harriet Sherwood @harrietsherwood. Sat 27 Oct 2018 12.00 EDT. Last modified on Sat 27 Oct 2018 15.53 EDT. T hey.
2012: A simple bust commemorates one of the bravest women of WW2. The memorial, in a corner of a garden in a London square, unveiled by the Princess Royal in 2012, is to Noor Inayat Khan - a British-Indian writer, musician and spy who was the last British radio operator in Paris in 1943 before she was captured and executed Jun 30, 2020 - Explore Ran's board China Burma India Theater on Pinterest. See more ideas about burma, world war ii, wwii [BAD QUALITY VERSION] -- Soldiers from the Indian Legion being inspected by Luftwaffe officers, Bordeaux, France, February 1944. The Free India Legion, officially the Infantry Regiment 950 (Indian), and later the Indian Volunteer Legion of the Waffen-SS intended to serve as a liberation force for British-ruled India, it was made up of Indian prisoners of war and expatriates in Europe
FIRST WORLD WAR India and the rest of the British dominions had no control over defence and foreign policy in 1914. So, when the United Kingdom declared war on Germany on 4 August, India and the rest of the British Empire were automatically at wa.. During the period from November 1941 to August 1942 the British 8th Army had suffered 102,000 battle casualties (of which 49,000 were British) but reinforcements continued to arrive and the Army's strength rose from 88,000 in January 1942 to 126,000 by May At this stage of the war, there were two uniforms that were worn by British soldiers: the very recognisable and well known 1937 pattern battledress (BD)uniform, and the largely obsolete 1922 pattern service dress (SD), the former supposedly replacing the latter, however many units had not been re-equiped at the early stages of the war, and thus went to war wearing this rather old fashioned uniform US Navy WWII Shawl Collar Denim Jacket. New reproduction. US$ 65.00: More! Classic Type 1 Denim Jacket. New reproduction. US$ 60.00: More! Indian Army Gray Wool Officer style Collared Shirts. New reproduction of the gray wool shirt of the British Indian Army. US$ 65.00: More! Australian Postwar Jungle Green Shirt . New reproduction of Australian shirts adopted in 1950 and used in Malaya and.
The British Army possessed or formed thirty-five infantry divisions in the Second World War, as listed below. In addition, there were formed nine County divisions, for coastal defence, each commanding a number of brigades but without the divisional troops which formed part of the establishment of field force divisions. The list of the field force given below does not include divisions of the Indian Army, nor the Colonial divisions. Nor are listed independent Guards and infantry brigade. Singapore surrendered with 80,000 troops on 15 February; eight days later the British-Indian brigades in Burma were crushed in the Battle of the Sittang Bridge, a defeat that effectively left the.. WWII British 303 Enfield Wood Container for Storing Ammo. $33.00. $18.50 shipping. 7 bids ·. Ending Mar 21 at 7:00PM PDT. 5d 14h. Lee Enfield No 4 Mk 1 Complete Stock Set. ***REFINISHED***. $92.00 British Army in the Mediterranean 1940 Allies , Armed Forces , Armies , WW2 / September 29, 2020 September 29, 2020 / Leave a Comment / By Kretaner / 1940 , uk / 3 minutes of reading Strength and organization of British and Empire Armies in the Mediterranean Theater when Italy declared war in 1940
There were plenty Caribbean Women serving in WW2. When we think of the British Armed Forces, there is often a tendency to think exclusively of men. In the past this has been largely due to the majority of Armed forces being made of almost entirely of men. However, WW2 saw plenty of Women sign up to the British Armed Forces. The exact numbers of Caribbean women serving in the BritishArmed forces can be difficult to pin down to an exact number. However, Richard Smith, writing in th However, British withdrawal signalled the end of the British Colonial Indian Army, overseen by Field Marshal Auchinleck, as troops were divided between India and Pakistan according to religion - Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan. Unfortunately, the sudden decision meant that millions were left stranded on the wrong side of the border and therefore one of the largest mass migrations that the.
Please note that many soldiers and officers who served in the British Army during the Second Boer War also served in the British Army during the First World War (1914-1918). When this happened,.. For most of World War II, the British army used the No. 4 spike bayonet, which featured an edgeless design. Other variants included the India pattern bayonet, which had a knife blade like the earlier 1907 model, and the No. 5. The latter featured a Bowie style blade for use with the shorter jungle carbine variant of the Lee-Enfield .303 rifle Please find below our selection of WW2 British Uniform, Insignia, Equipment and more. Most of this section is filled with reproductions of British Uniforms and gear, with attention to detail making for some great products for WW2 re-enactors and enthusiasts. Our 37 Pattern Uniforms are a great place to start, and there's a great range of shoulder titles to finish off your uniform First World War British Army Lists. Search the British Army Lists 1882-1962 by name on the Fold3 website (£) - you can search the lists at Ancestry.co.uk (£) but for images of the lists you will need to go to Fold3.com. These online versions include all the First World War lists, originally published at monthly or quarterly intervals British Army in WW2: This section of the site contains articles and information on the British Army in WW2. It also contains a guide to tracing men who served in WW2 and information on our WW2 Research Service for those who died. Paul Reed Somme (France) & Kent (UK) Follow Paul Reed on Twitter - click on the logo. British Divisions Information on the Battle of the Bulge battlefields. Normandy.
WW1 (WWI, World War One, Great War) Uniforms, Equipment & Gear for the British Army. WWI (WWI, World War One, Great War) Australian, ANZAC, New Zealand Army Uniforms and Gear. World War One (WW1, WWI) US AEF Army Uniforms Gear; World War One (WW1, WWI) Imperial German Army Uniforms & Gear. World War One (WW1, WWI) Canadian & Other Army Uniforms & Gear. World War Two (WW2,WWII) British Army. UK Army List 1939: 1939-1945 WWII Daily reports (missing, dead, wounded & POWs) 1939-1945 UK, Army Roll of Honour, 1939-1945 : 1939-1945 Bomber/Fighter Command Losses 1939-1945: 1939-1945 Home Guard Officer Lists 1939-45: 1939-1945 Imperial Prisoners of war held in Japan: 1939-1945 Prisoners of War of the British Empire held in Germany 1939-45: 1939-1945 Seedies Merchant Navy Awards: 1940 UK. British Indian troops of the 4th Corps cross the Chindwin River near Sittaung pushing east into Burma and linking up with 36th P-47 Thunderbolt fighters in an RAF base in Burma take off to blast the retreating Japanese army during the Burma Campaign of 1945. The Thunderbolt was effective as a short-to medium-range escort fighter in high-altitude air-to-air combat and ground attack in both the.
Get the best deals on Original WW II British Medals, Pins & Ribbons when you shop the largest online selection at eBay.com. Free shipping on many items | Browse your favorite brands | affordable prices We are a group of people who enjoy portraying the World War Two British Army Medical Services, we are based in the north of England and visit many shows in Yorkshire, Lincolnshire and Lancashire during the year putting on displays. During WW2 Doctors, Nurses, Dentists, and Veterinarian's served all over the world from Europe to the desert and out to the Jungles of the far east. Our aims are to educate and inform the next generation on how they did this Guides to Researching WW2 Soldiers who served in the British Army The guides below will help you to research either an officer or other rank who served in the British Army in the Second World War. Researching these soldiers can be a difficult task, as unlike for First World War soldiers, most of the information you will need to consult is not available online British Army, Indian Volunteer Force Medal Awards 1915-1939; British Army, Irish regimental enlistment registers 1877-1924; British Army, List Of Half-Pay Officers 1714; British Army, Lloyds Of London Memorial Roll 1914-1919; British Army, Northumberland Fusiliers 1881-1920; British Army, Queen's Royal West Regiment 1901-191 After WWII and after the Indian Independence an appeal was made by Sir Claude Auchinleck, the last commanderin-chief of the British Indian army, for money and objects to be donated to honour.
WW2 Australian Army; WW2 French Army; Sort by: 99 items. Previous; 1; Next; WW1 Womens War Volunteer Worker WV Lapel Badge - JR GAUNT LONDON £14.99. Add to Basket. Soldiers, Sailors & Airmens Families Association Lapel Pin Badge £5.99. Add to Basket. WW2 The Burma Star Association Members SMALL Stud-Pin Lapel Badge £11.99. Add to Basket. WW1 On War Service 1914 Enamel Lapel Badge - W. J. Facts about British Soldiers in WW2 1: the defeat. The British army had to suffer from being defeated in the battlefield where they were introduced during the first years of the war. Facts about British Soldiers in WW2 2: the formation of armies . The formation or army and army groups were enlarged due to the mass conscription. They never had any strategic defeat when the army had better and. Official lists for the British Army, Royal Navy and Royal Air Force have been published since the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries respectively. Also includes unofficial 'Hart's Army Lists' of British Army and, from 1862, Indian Army Officers published between 1839 and 1915. More information Form / genre: Written and printed matter > Periodicals : Person / organisation: Great Britain. Army. PACK BATTERY 1908 BRITISH INDIA ARMY GENERAL SERVICE MEDAL 3 BAR WW1 WW2. AU $375.00 + AU $32.00 shipping. eBayPlus . 92ND PUNJABIS 1908 BRITISH INDIA ARMY GENERAL SERVICE MEDAL 3 BAR WW1 WW2 BURMA. AU $395.00 + AU $32.00 shipping. eBayPlus. WW2 INDIAN ARMY GENERAL SERVICE MEDAL SE ASIA 1945 46 INDIAN ARMY. AU $165.00 + AU $32.00 shipping. eBayPlus. Similar sponsored items. Showing Slide 1 of. Listed in the table below are the insignia—emblems of authority—of the British Army. Badges for field officers were first introduced in 1810 and the insignia was moved to the epaulettes in 1880. On ceremonial or parade uniforms these ranks continue to be worn on the epaulettes, either as cloth slides or as metal clips, although on the modern 'working dress' (daily uniform) they are usually.
The Ranks of the British Army during the Second World War: Cap Badge & Collar Gorget Patches Officers, Epaulets NCO & other ranks, arm Army formation DBG Militaria : British Army Shoulder Titles - Boer War Militaria WW1 British Militaria WW1 German/ Austrian Militaria WW2 British Militaria WW2 German Militaria Post War Militaria Military Issued Watches WW2 Home Front/Home Guard WW2 American Militaria R.F.C/R.A.F/R.N.A.S Militaria Archives De-activated gun Accessories WW1 Misc Militaria Military Edged Weapons WW2 Misc Militaria British. The following article on the German Army WW2 is an excerpt from Barrett Tillman' D-Day Encyclopedia. It Frundsberg fought at Arnhem (gaining a reputation for chivalry for its treatment of British POWs) and the West Wall. Returned eastward in February 1945, the division subsequently was withdrawn to Pomerania. In May, surrounded, it surrendered to the Soviets at Schonau in Saxony. Twelfth.